References and Resources

If you would like to learn more about language learning aptitude, and the part it plays in the second language testing and teaching community today, you may find the following articles and publications helpful.American Educational Research Association. (2006). Foreign Language Instruction: Implementing the Best Teaching Methods. Research Points, 4(1).

Carroll, J. B. (1981). Twenty-five years of research on foreign language aptitude. In K. C. Diller (Ed.), Individual differences and universals in language learning aptitude, (p.83-118). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Carroll, J. B. & Sapon, S. (2002). Modern Language Aptitude Test: Manual 2002 Edition. N. Bethesda, MD: Second Language Testing, Inc.

Carroll, J. B. & Sapon, S. (2002). Modern Language Aptitude Test – Elementary: Manual, 2002 Edition. Rockville, MD: Second Language Testing, Inc.

Child, J. R. (1998). Language Aptitude Testing: Learners and Applications. Applied Language Learning, 9(1&2), 1-10.

Madaus, J. W. (2003). What High School students with learning disabilities need to know about college foreign language requirements. Teaching exceptional children, 36(2), 62-66.

Ehrman, M. (1994, Sept.). A study of the modern language aptitude test for predicting learning success and advising students. Paper presented at Language Aptitude Invitational Symposium. Arlington, VA.

Ehrman, M. E. ( 1996). Understanding second language learning difficulties. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Ehrman, M. (1998). The Modern Language Aptitude Test for Predicting Learning Success and Advising Students. Applied Language Learning, 9(1&2), 32-71.

Gajar, A. H. (1987). Foreign language learning disabilities: The identification of predictive and diagnostic variables. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 20(6), 327-330.

Genessee, F & Hamayan, E. (1980). Individual differences in second language learning. Applied Psycholinguistics, 1, 95-110.

Lowe, P. Jr. (1998). Zero-Based Language Aptitude Test Design: Where’s the Focus for the Test? Applied Language Learning, 9(1&2), 11-31.

McGuire, J. M. & Scott, S. S. (2005). Review of Carroll, J. B. & Sapon, S. M. (2002 ed.). Modern language aptitude test (MLAT). N. Bethesda, MD: Second Language Testing, Inc. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 23, 96-104.

Natelson, E. R. (1975). The predictive validity of each of the five parts of the Modern language Aptitude Test; the effect of previous language training on MLAT scores; the correlation of MLAT scores and achievement in specific language groups. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Pimsleur, P., Reed, D. J. & Stansfield, C. W. (2004). Pimsleur Language Aptitude Battery: Manual, 2004 Edition. N. Bethesda, MD: Second Language Testing, Inc.

Pimsleur, P., Sundland, D.M. & McIntyre, R.D. (1963). Under-Achievement in Foreign Language Learning: Final Report. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Research Foundation.

Reed, D. J. & Stansfield, C. W. (2004). Using the Modern Language Aptitude Test to Identify a Foreign Language Learning Disability: Is it Ethical? Language Assessment Quarterly, 1(2&3), 161–176.

Reed, D. J. & Stansfield, C. W. (2002, May). The use of the Modern Language Aptitude Test in the assessment of foreign language learning disability-What’s at stake? Paper presented at Language Assessment Ethics Conference, Pasadena, CA.

Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sparks, R., Javorsky, J., Patton, J. and Ganschow, L. (1998). Factors in the Prediction of Achievement and Proficiency in a Foreign Language. Applied Language Learning, 9(1&2), 72-107.

Stansfield, C. W. (1989). Language Aptitude Reconsidered. Washington DC: ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics, 1989.

Stansfield, C. W. & Reed, D. J. (2005). Modern Language Aptitude Test – Elementary: Spanish Version, 2005 Edition. Rockville, MD: Second Language Testing, Inc.

Steinman, L. & Smith, M. (2001). Review of Carroll, J. B. & Sapon, S. M. (1959). Modern language aptitude test and manual (MLAT). San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 58(2), 307-312.

Wesche, M. (1981). Language aptitude measures in streaming, matching students with methods, and diagnosis of learning problems. In K. Diller (Ed.), Individual Differences and Universals in Language Aptitude. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Wesche, M., Edwards, H & Wells, W. (1982) Foreign language aptitude and intelligence. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3, 127-140.